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THE English were not the only people who had colonies in North America, the Spaniards, had claimed planted a colony at Saint Augustine, in Florida, in 1565, forty-two years before the first permanent English colony landed at Jamestown. Saint Augustine is thus, the oldest city in the United States.
But the Spaniards were too busy in Mexico and in Central and South America to push their settlements farther to the north, though they were very much wanted to enjoy the fruits of the English colonies, and especially of South Carolina and Georgia.
The French laid claim also to a large part of North America. They tried to plant a colony in Canada in 1549, and afterward made some other attempts that failed. Quebec was founded by a great French explorer, Samuel de Champlain, in 1608, the very year after the English settled at Jamestown.
At Quebec the real settlement of Canada was begun, and it was always the capital of the vast establishments of the French in America. The French, like the English, were trying to find the Pacific Ocean, and they were much more daring in their explorations than the English colonists, whose chief business was farming.
Louis Joliet and Father Marquette reached the Mississippi in 1673, and another Frenchman, Robert de La Salle, explored the country west of the Alleghany Mountains, and discovered the Ohio River. He was also the first European to sail down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico
After many disasters and failures, La Salle succeeded in reaching the mouth of the Mississippi.
Father Hennepin, a priest, explored the upper Mississippi and so the French then laid claim to all the country west of the Alleghenies. Over the region they established posts and mission houses, while the English contented themselves with multiplying their farming settlements east of the mountains.
When La Salle reached the mouth of the Mississippi he took possession of the country in the name of Louis XIV, and called it Louisiana, in honor of that king. The settlement of Louisiana was begun in 1699. The French held the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi, the two great water ways of North America, and they controlled most of the Indian tribes by means of missionaries and traders.
They wanted to connect Canada and Louisiana by a chain of fortified posts, and so to hold for France an empire, in the heart of America, larger than France itself. But the weakness of the French in America lay in the fewness of their people. Canada, the oldest of their colonies, was in a country too cold to be a prosperous farming country in that day.
Besides, its growth was checked by the system of lordships with tenants, which some of the English colonies had also tried. But inferior as the French were in numbers, they were strong in their military character; they were almost all soldiers. The English were divided into colonies, and could never be made to act together; but the French, from Canada to the Mississippi, were absolutely subjected to their governors.
The French were also rendered terrible to the English colonies by their skill in controlling the Indians. The great business of the French in Canada was the fur trade, and this was pushed with an energy that left the English traders far behind.
The French drew furs from the shores of Lake Superior and from beyond the Mississippi and the French traders gained great influence over the Indians. The English treated the Indians as inferiors; the French lived among them on terms of equality. The French also gained control of the Indian tribes by means of missionary priests, who risked their lives and spent much time living with them in order to teach them religion.
The powerful Iroquois confederacy, known as the "Five Nations" and afterward as the "Six Nations" sided with the English, and hated and killed the French. They lived in what is now the State of New York. But the most of the tribes were managed by the French, who sent missionaries to convert them, ambassadors to flatter them, gunsmiths to mend their arms, and military men to teach them to fortify, and to direct their attacks against the settlements of the English.
The wars between the French colony in pokie online Canada and the English colonies, in what is now the United States, slots online were caused partly by wars between France and England in Europe. But there were also causes enough for enmity in the state of affairs on this side of the ocean.
First, there was always a quarrel about territory. The French claimed that part of what is now the State of Maine which lies east of the Kennebec River, while the English claimed to the St. Croix. The French also claimed all the country west of the Alleghenies. With a population not more than one twentieth slot maschinen of that of one of the English colonies, they spread their claim over all the country watered by the lakes and the tributaries of the Mississippi, including more than half of the present United States.
Second, both France and England wished to control the fisheries of the eastern coast. Third, both the French and the English endeavored to get the entire control of the fur trade. To do this the French tried to win the Iroquois Confederacy to their interest, while the English casino spiele sought to take the trade of the Western tribes away from the French.
Fourth, the French were Catholics and the English mostly Protestants. In online pokies games that age men spielautomaten were very bigoted about religion and hated and feared those who differed from them.
There were four actual wars with the French during the colonial time. The first was called "King William's War" from William III, King of England and it lasted from 1689 to 1697.
This war was the first severe blow to fall on the settlements of Maine, where the Indians in the French pokie australia interest attacked the settlers in June 1689, paying old grudges by torturing their victims.
But the French did not escape. The Iroquois Indians were in alliance with the English, and had their own reasons for taking revenge on the French. In this same summer of 1689 they attacked the settlements about Montreal at daybreak, and killed two hundred people, carrying away many more into captivity.
The French replied, not by assailing the Indians, but by carrying fire and massacre into the province of New York. In the bitter weather of January, 1690, a party of two hundred and ten, French and Indians, having traveled through frozen forests for many days, entered Schenectady at midnight and massacred sixty of its people. Those who escaped fled half naked through the snow to Albany, sixteen miles away.
Another party, from online slot machines Canada fell on the settlement at Salmon Falls, NH, and a third carried the like horrors to Casco Bay, in Maine. All the people on the frontier of the Northern colonies were now in terror.
To meet the danger, some sort of united action among the colonies was necessary. A congress of commissioners from several colonies met in New York, in 1690, and planned an invasion of Canada.
Sir William Phips had just taken Port Royal, in Nova Scotia and expeditions were sent against Montreal and Quebec. One went from New York and Connecticut by way of Lakes George and Champlain; the other from Boston, under Sir William Phips, was sent in a fleet of thirty-two ships.
The land expedition was a failure, and never even reached Canada. The fleet under Phips reached Quebec, but failed to capture it.
But Peter Schuyler, of Albany, a man much beloved by the Iroquois, who called him "Quider" led an expedition in 1691, into the French settlements. He did what he could to prevent Indian cruelties. But the war was miserable and without result, until peace between France and England in 1697, brought a breather from violence to the colonists of both nations. This was after eight years of war.
In 1702 the war known as "Queen Anne's War" began. In this war England fought against Spain as well as France.
South Carolina was involved in a war with the Spaniards and Indians of Florida, while the Northern colonies were struggling against Canada. The Governor of South Carolina made successful inroads upon the Florida Indians, but he could not capture St. Augustine.
Port Royal, in Nova Scotia, was again taken from the French in 1710, but the attempts made to take Quebec were once more a failure. The war was chiefly notable for the horrible onslaughts of the Canada Indians on some of the towns of the Northern frontier.
Deerfield, in western Massachusetts, was destroyed in 1704, and more than a hundred of its people carried into captivity. The war lasted about eleven years. A treaty was made in 1713, and there was a long peace between France and England. But the intrigues of both powers with the Indians continued, and New England had many bloody engagements with the Indians of Maine, who were under the influence of the French.
In 1740, during a war with Spain, General Oglethorpe, the founder of Georgia, tried to conquer Florida, but the fortifications of St. Augustine were too strong for him. Two years later the Spaniards invaded Georgia, but Oglethorpe maneuvered his little force with so much skill as to lead the Spanish into ambush and defeat them at every point.
In 1744 the war between England and France, known as "King George's War" began. At that time many French privateers were sent out to plunder New England ships. These privateers came out of Louisbourg, a French stronghold on Cape Breton Island.
Governor Shirley of Massachusetts sent four thousand untrained New England militiamen. They were commanded by a merchant, and their officers did not know even the meaning of military terms. But they made up in courage and enthusiasm for their inexperience.
The Americans had few cannons, but their favorite amusement had always been target-shooting, and the deadly skill with which they used their muskets made it almost impossible for the French to work their guns. The excitement over this contest put a stop to almost all kinds of business in the Eastern colonies, and when at length the powerful fortress surrendered to a little army of farmers and mechanics, there was no end of joy in New England. This was the chief victory of the war, and it gave the American troops confidence in themselves.
At the close of the war, in 1748, England returned the place again to the French, in exchange for advantages elsewhere. This was a bitter disappointment to the New Englanders, who called the day of its surrender a "black day, to be forever blotted out of New England calendars."
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